This is taken from the NKJV Study Bible. I find it a helpful framework:
‘ Second Corinthians is primarily a personal letter, defending Paul’s ministry among the Corinthians and appealing to the factions in the church to reconcile themselves to each other.
Yet Paul still uses doctrine to address this church’s problems.He speaks of the foundational problems in the Christian faith:
the Trinity ( 1:21.22;13:14)… ;the deity (1:12:19; 4:5) ; humanity (8:9) ; the death (5:19,21) and resurrection of Christ (5:15)
Paul reaffirms that all believers have been sealed by the Holy Spirit (1:22)and have been given the Spirit as a deposit. (1:22;5:5)
The believing Christians are in Christ ( 5:7) and Christ is in them ( 13:3,4)
They will be resurrected ( 4:14; 5:1-8)and evaluated at the judgement seat of Christ (5:10) where they will either be ashamed ( 5:3) or rewarded ( 5:9,10)
Paul points out that part of the reason for the Corinthians’ difficulties and divisions was Satan’s opposition to the church. He blinds unbelievers to the truth (4:4) and uses every opportunity to divide the believers ( 2:11)
This is why Paul exhorts the Corinthians to lead holy lives, to repent of the sins of the past and to be reconciled to each other.
Thus in this personal letter defending his ministry and authority, Paul still weaves doctrine into the fabric of his discussion.
For Paul, the essence of Christian faith touched on every facet of life, not only divisions and controversies like those that disturbed the Corinthian church,’